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Tuesday, March 16, 2010

Camera and photography tips Part 4

Aperture
The opening behind the lens that permits light to travel to the camera's interior where the sensor is located. Aperture sizes are measured in full stops (f-stop-number) A f-stop of 22 closes the lens opening more, and a f-stop of 1.4 closes less. Typically, a fast shutter speed will require a larger aperture (small f-stop number) to ensure sufficient light exposure, and a slow shutter speed will require a smaller aperture (larger f-stop number) to avoid excessive exposure.










More technical info
The lens aperture is usually specified as an f-number, the ratio of focal length to effective aperture diameter. A lens typically has a set of marked "f-stops" that the f-number can be set to. A lower f-number denotes a greater aperture opening which allows more light to reach the film or image sensor. The photography term "one f-stop" refers to a factor of √2 (approx. 1.41) change in f-number, which in turn corresponds to a factor of 2 changes in light intensity.

Shutter Speed
The duration, for which the camera's aperture is opened, thereby allowing light to stream in. Longer shutter speeds leave the aperture open longer, letting more light in and resulting in more exposure.


White Balance (extra info)
Human eyes compensate for lighting conditions with different colours of light. A digital camera, however, requires a reference point that represents white. It then calculates all other colours based upon this setting.
 


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